Sign In
Aaron Levie Alain de Botton Alan Watts Alexis Ohanian Andreas Antonopoulos Andrew DeSantis Andrew Lo Arthur De Vany Aubrey de Grey Balaji Srinivasan Ben Bratton Bill Bryson Bryan Caplan Carl Jung Chamath Palihapitiya Chris Arnade Chris Sacca Daniel Dennett Daniel Kahneman David Linden David Sacks Derek Parfit Derek Sivers Douglas Hofstadter E.O. Wilson Elon Musk Eric Weinstein Ezra Klein Gad Saad George Gilder George Lakoff Ido Portal J.D. Vance James Altucher James Gleick Jason Silva Jeff Bezos Jim Simons Jocko Willink John Hagelin John Nash Josh Waitzkin Julia Galef Kelly Starrett Kevin Kelly Kevin Rose Kim Scott Kumar Thangudu Leonard Shlain Malcolm Gladwell Marc Andreessen Maria Konnikova Maria Popova Matt Ridley Michael Hiltzik Michael Sandel Naval Ravikant Neil Strauss Neil Turok Nick Bostrom Nick Szabo Noah Kagan Noam Chomsky Oliver Sacks P.D. Mangan Paul Bloom Paul Graham Peter Attia Peter Diamandis Peter Thiel Reid Hoffman Rhonda Patrick Richard Feynman Richard Rorty Robert Caro Robert Cialdini Robert Greene Robert Kurzban Robert Langer Robert McNamara Robert Putnam Robert Sapolsky Rory Sutherland Ryan Holiday Sam Altman Sam Harris Scott Adams Scott Belsky Scott Galloway Seth Godin Shawn Baker Shinzen Young Siddhartha Mukherjee Simon Sinek Slavoj Zizek Stephen Wolfram Steve Jobs Steven Pinker Stewart Butterfield Ted Nelson Tiago Forte Tim Ferriss Tim Urban Timothy Gowers Timothy Pychyl Tyler Cowen Vaclav Smil Valter Longo Venkatesh Rao Vinay Gupta Vincent Dignan Will MacAskill Wim Hof Yanis Varoufakis Yuval Harari
Michael Sandel
Michael J. Sandel (/sænˈdɛl/; born March 5, 1953) is an American political philosopher and a political philosophy professor at Harvard University. His course “Justice” is the first Harvard course to be made freely available online and on television. It has been viewed by tens of millions of people around the world, including in China, where Sandel was named the “most influential foreign figure of the year.” (China Newsweek). He is also known for his critique of John Rawls' A Theory of Justice in his first book, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (1982). He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2002.
Is it just to tax the rich to help the poor? John Rawls says we should answer this question by asking what principles you would choose to govern the distribution of income and wealth if you did not know who you were, whether you grew up in privilege or in poverty. Wouldnt you want an equal distribution of wealth, or one that maximally benefits whomever happens to be the least advantaged? After all, that might be you. Rawls argues that even meritocracy—a distributive system that rewards effort—doesnt go far enough in leveling the playing field because those who are naturally gifted will always get ahead. Furthermore, says Rawls, the naturally gifted cant claim much credit because their success often depends on factors as arbitrary as birth order. Sandel makes Rawlss point when he asks the students who were first born in their family to raise their hands.
Professor Sandel recaps how income, wealth, and opportunities in life should be distributed, according to the three different theories raised so far in class. He summarizes libertarianism, the meritocratic system, and John Rawlss egalitarian theory. Sandel then launches a discussion of the fairness of pay differentials in modern society. He compares the salary of former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day OConnor ($200,000) with the salary of televisions Judge Judy ($25 million). Sandel asks, is this fair? According to John Rawls, it is not. Rawls argues that an individuals personal success is often a function of morally arbitrary facts—luck, genes, and family circumstances—for which he or she can claim no credit. Those at the bottom are no less worthy simply because they werent born with the talents a particular society rewards, Rawls argues, and the only just way to deal with societys inequalities is for the naturally advantaged to share their wealth with those less fortunate.